Complete Philosophy

“You should never support any ideology – any philosophy that goads a man into the path of animality. Yours is the path of spirituality. When you have been blessed with a human body, be cent percent human, and go on decreasing your distance from the Supreme Consciousness. And finally, be one with Him.”
Shrii Shrii Anandamurti

Tantric cosmology Brahmacakra: The Circle of Creation:
In all civilizations people have tried to explain the origin of the universe in one way or another. In each cultural group one can find some mythology in which the story of creation is explained. Most of these stories do not match what modern science says about this subject. In Ananda Marga philosophy the theory of creation is not only in accord with the views modern science, but also serves as a guide for scientists seeking answers yet unresolved.

This Tantric theory of creation is not only scientific, but also deeply spiritual. According to Ananda Marga Infinite Consciousness is the source of everything. This Infinite Consciousness is considered the absolute principle and it is known as Brahma. The cycle of creation in which Brahma transforms itself into this manifested universe is known as Brahmacakra.

Brahma means “The entity which is infinite and has the ability to make others infinite,” Brahma is composed of consciousness and energy. In Sanskrit, consciousness is known as Purusa and energy as Prakrti (another name for Consciousness is Shiva and for energy, Shakti). Although we can say that Brahma is composed of consciousness and energy, it should be emphasized that Brahma is a singular entity, its two parts are the like two sides of a piece of paper, they can never be separated. Consciousness never exists independently from the cosmic energy.

What exactly is Consciousness? Purusa or Consciousness can be defined according to the different functions it performs. First of all Consciousness plays the role of witness to all the events of this universe. It’s like a lamp in the ceiling of a room, many events going on in the room, but the lamp does not participate directly in the action. It provides light; it makes the events possible and “observes” all the activities. This is the “cognitive faculty.”

Another function of Consciousness (Purusa) is that it is the material cause of the universe, is the “raw material” from which everything is made. Scientists are always looking for the fundamental matter of the universe. For a while it was thought that the atom was the smallest particle, but recently they have been divided and subdivided the atom finding smaller particles. The search for the smallest particles seems endless. The Science of Yoga has long stated that the primary cause of all existence and the source of all material objects is nothing but pure consciousness.

Another way to describe Consciousness is by saying it is “efficient cause” of the universe and the fundamental entity controlling all actions in it. Consciousness is like an architect who has designed the entire Universe and acts to carry it out. But just as the architect cannot build without the help of others, Brahma also needs the help of Prakriti, the Operative Principle, to do carry out its task.

Prakriti is the other aspect of Brahma, “the other side of the piece of paper” so to speak. In the cycle of creation the dominant and controlling role belongs to the Consciousness and the operative principle is considered to be a characteristic of Consciousness. It is the Consciousness which allows the Operative Principle to work. If the Consciousness does not give the Operative Principle a chance to act, then the Pure Consciousness remains without modification. In this condition the Consciousness is beyond human conception because it does not have attributes such as aroma, shape or colour. This state of pure consciousness is called Nirguna Brahma.

If the operative principle has the opportunity to act, it works in three fundamental ways. This means that Prakrti creates differences in this world by modifying the original Pure Consciousness in three ways. These three fundamental styles of action are known as gunas in Sanskrit. This term literally means “binding quality” and derives from the idea that Prakrti is like a rope which modifies Consciousness by binding it.

When a particular guna is active there is a modification or control over Consciousness. The three gunas of prakrti are called sattva (sentient), rajah (mutative) and tamah (static).

Sattvaguna creates the most subtle modifications. It is responsible for the feeling of existence “I exist”. Rajahguna is responsible for the feeling “I do” and Tamah guna is responsible for the feeling “I have done.” Tamah guna works to materialize thoughts and is responsible for creating the solid elements that we observe in the universe.

What is the process by which Prakrti drives and begins to modify Consciousness thus creating Saguna Brahma (Brahma with qualities)? First we have to conceive a “previous” state to the creation of the universe. Here the Supreme Consciousness is unchanged. The three gunas of prakrti exist but do not act. If the three forces were represented as countless lines, the intersection of these lines forms countless polygons. This is a theoretical way to represent the state in which Consciousness is unmodified.

Figure 1: Matrix:
If we analyze the image we can see that most of the figures formed by the three forces are triangles. In these “triangles of force,” the three gunas are whirling around, transforming themselves one into the other. Purusa (Consciousness) is “trapped” inside this triangle. The formation of this triangle signals the beginning of the creation of the universe. Consciousness within the triangle is the core of the universe, Purusottama, and when the balance between the three forces breaks out of the triangle and modifies the Consciousness. This first modification of Consciousness is very subtle. The cosmic sense of pure existence is created and Consciousness becomes aware of itself. This “I exist” is called Mahattattva and the first portion of the Cosmic Mind. Following the first modification, the next force, rajah guna, becomes active and adds another quality to Consciousness. Action or thought “I do” arises in the pure consciousness and the second part of the Cosmic Mind or Ahamtattva is created. Finally, the third guna is active, the static force or tamah guna, and modifies the Consciousness in another way. This modification produces the feeling of “I have done” or objective reality and creates the third part of the Cosmic Mind which is known as Citta or mind stuff.

Diagram 2: Formation of the Cosmic Mind.


This description of the Cosmic Mind may seem abstract, but if we understand the functioning of our own mind, which is a small version of the Cosmic Mind, we can understand it better. For example, what happens when we see a tree? Our sensory organs receive the reflected light from the tree which is transmitted to the brain and, finally, the image is formed in our mind. We can also close our eyes and still keep the image of the tree in our mind. The portion of the mind which gives the command to “create” the tree in the mind is the “I do” factor or Ahamtattva (ego), which is dominated by the mutative principle or rajah guna. The portion of the mind which forms the image of the tree is the Citta or the crude principle “I’ve done.” Citta is like a screen on which images are formed according to the commands of Aham or ego (the “I do” factor). In every operation of the mind the very beginning “I exist” or Mahatattva must be present, because without the sense of “I” there cannot be any “I do”.

The Cosmic Mind works in the same way as the individual mind, but there are important differences that must be noted. As we have seen, the physical world (such as the tall tree) appears as an external reality to us, but for the Cosmic Mind the entire universe is an internal image of the infinite Cosmic Citta. Also in our individual minds we can use the imaginative power to create a green elephant, but this is not real for anyone except the one who imagined it. However, if there is a picture in the Cosmic Mind, that image is a reality and will be perceived as such by the microcosmic or unit minds.

After the formation of the three parts of the Cosmic Mind, the static force (tamah guna) continues to modify the Citta portion of the Cosmic Mind and adds further attributes to the pure Consciousness. It begins transforming a portion of the Citta into the five fundamental factors.

In different ancient theories there were said to be basic elements out of which matter is made. The Greeks talked of earth, air, water and fire. These elements are also named in esoteric systems such as astrology. In Ananda Marga philosophy there are five fundamental factors. The first is known as the ethereal factor or akasha tattva. Although modern science abandoned the concept of ether after the Michelson-Morley experiments in the 19th century failed to detect it, we can recognize it as “space”. In Tantra is said that this spatial factor is responsible for carrying the subtle primordial vibration of Omkara or Om.

As the tamah guna continues to modify the Consciousness, a portion of it is transformed into vayu tattva or gaseous factor. This factor can carry sound and touch vibrations. The next factor is tejas tattva or luminous factor, which carries sound, touch and light. Following the luminous creation, the liquid factor appears, apa tattva, which carries taste, vibration, as well as sound, touch, light. The solid factor or kṣiti tattva transports aroma vibrations, as well as the vibrations carried by the other factors. Therefore we can say that all things of this physical world exist in the citta portion of the Cosmic Mind and the Universe can be considered as its mental projection.

When Consciousness (Purusa) has been transformed into solid factor, the first half of the cosmic cycle of creation is complete. The first cycle in which Consciousness is transformed into Cosmic Mind, and then into the five fundamental factors, is known as Saincara or movement “away from the cosmic nucleus.” In the second half of the cycle, matter is transformed into pure Consciousness. This movement of “cosmic approach to core” is known as pratisaincara.

We have previously seen that through the process of action of the three gunas Consciousness is transformed into the basic elements that form the universe. The process of creation does not stop with the transformation of consciousness into inanimate objects. The binding principles of Prakrti continue to transform Consciousness.

Figure 3: The creation of Prana


It is the static principle or tamah guna which continues to transform Consciousness. At the end of Saincara we find the creation of the solid factor. Tamah guna puts pressure on the solid objects trying to compress or to reduce the space between molecules. This compression of the static principle causes the creation of forces within the object. One force in the object, centrifugal, acts from the centre of the object outwards. The other one is a centripetal force acting from the outside to the centre of the object. The collective name of these two forces is Prana. If the centrifugal force is stronger than the centripetal one, a nucleus is formed in the solid factor. This nucleus controls the Prana or life force in the object and there is now the possibility for the development of life. Of course, if the centripetal force is stronger, then the result is the destruction of the object, in Sanskrit it is called jadasphota – an exploding star, known by astrologers as supernova are examples of jadasphota -.In jadasphota the solid factor is transformed into the liquid, aerial, luminous and ethereal factors. If a nucleus is formed in the object and the vital forces are controlled by the core in an atmosphere where all factors are in balance and harmony, there we can witness the first expression of life.

With the creation of life we ​​find an important event in the cosmic cycle. In each living entity there is a mind. The simpler the entity is in physical structure, the simpler will be its mind. Also the more complex a physical structure is, the more complex that mind will be.

Now we can ask what is the origin of mind in the individual? As we said, due to the action of the static force on the solid objects, two forces are created. As a result of the friction caused by the conflict between these forces and the object, some solid particles are pulverized into something subtler, which is mind stuff or citta. As solids are caused by the mind (the Cosmic Mind) is quite consistent and logical to say that the unit or individual minds emerge from matter.

In unicellular organisms, the mind there is very simple. For example, in protozoa we can see that its behaviour is reflexive or instinctive. If you put a hot pin close to it, it will move away automatically. This type of reflexive behaviour is controlled by its simple mind which is completely composed of citta. The feeling of “I” and “I exist” does not find expression in unicellular organisms.

Life is a state of evolution. As a result of shocks and unions, the simple animals and plants become more complex. In Ananda Marga philosophy we also observe that tamah guna, which has dominated the cycle of creation from the state of the Cosmic Mind to the state of the simple life, loses its dominance at this point. Rajah guna, or mutative force, now becomes the dominant force. In this stage, living beings become more and more developed physically and mentally. Animals and plants not only have a mind that governs them instinctively and rationally, but there is now the second function of the mind, the “I do” factor (ahamtattva or ego).

When a significant portion of the “I do” factor is greater in quantity than the citta portion, which governs instinct, the animal has the capacity to develop an intelligent behaviour. In many animals we can see the birth of the intellect. They can learn by trial and error, for example, to avoid those things which cause pain and to seek those which give pleasure. As the Ahamtattva develops, the behaviour of the animals becomes more complex.

The evolution continues and in some animals and plants there is also the expression of another part of the mind. This gradual evolution of the mind is caused by the growth of the activity of the most subtle and powerful of the gunas, sattva guna. Sattva guna action produces the development of the “I exist” factor (mahattattva). If the amount of mahattattva in an individual is greater than the amount of ahamtattva, the surplus portion is responsible for the development of intuition. And intellect is an analytical faculty, intuition is a synthetic faculty. With intellect it is possible to know something by examining its parts, but with intuition is possible to know something as a whole, in a holistic manner.

Two important caracteristiques found in people with developed intuition are viveka (discrimination) and vaeragya (renunciation and non- attachment)

Diagama 4: Brahmacakra: The cosmic cycle.


In the returning phase to the cosmic cycle (pratisaincara) we have seen the evolution of life, from simple to complex forms. Looking at the chart 5, we can see that the cycle is oval and not round. This means that the speed of evolution near the cosmic core is greater. When the stage of human life is reached a critical point is attained  . Humans have the ability to increase the speed of their evolution towards the Cosmic Nucleus. This can be done through meditation. In meditation there is a process through which the citta (I have done) is immersed in the Aham (I) and aham is absorbed into Mahat (I am). It is through this process that the intuition of the person develops and that is why meditation is called the science of intuition.

The state in which the mind, wrapped in the process of meditation, becomes transformed into this intuitive mahat and then merged with the Cosmic Mind, is known as samadhi savikalpa. The person who meditates deeply feels “I am one with the Supreme Consciousness.” But this is not the ultimate state of meditation. When the whole mind is dissolved in the Witnessing Consciousness of the universe, another state known as nirvikalpa samadhi is reached. In this state there is no feeling of “I” and therefore there is no individual consciousness, only ecstatic union with Parama Purusa. What is the final destiny of life? Yoga science says is the union of the individual consciousness with the nucleus of the cosmic cycle. In Ananda Marga philosophy of this union is described in another way. Rather than merging with the nucleus, the ultimate goal is to merge yourself in the pure and immutable Cosmic Consciousness (Nirguna Brahma) which exists beyond the manifested universe (Saguna Brahma).

Permanent union with Nirguna Brahma is known as moksa. To achieve this state of moksa, Shrii Shrii Anandamurti introduced a unique concept known as Taraka Brahma. According to Ananda Marga philosophy, Brahma exists as the manifested universe (Saguna) and beyond the action of Prakriti there is another portion of Brahma remaining undifferentiated and infinite (Nirguna). The point of contact between the manifested and unmanifested Brahma is Taraka Brahma which means “the liberator”. If we draw a tangent line touching the ellipse we use to represent Saguna Brahma (see chart 6) the tangential point is a point which is both inside and outside the ellipse.



Diagram 5: Taraka Brahma

This point is Saguna and at the same time is also Nirguna. This point is Taraka Brahma. The great spiritual teachers who appear regularly in the history of mankind are expressions of this tangential entity whose role is to guide individuals towards self-realization and the ultimate union with Nirguna Brahma. The concept of Taraka Brahma is a devotional concept and explains the reverence given to great spiritual masters. When individuals merge their individual mind with the unmanifested Supreme Consciousness, Brahmacakra cycle is completed. And just as the individual mind is liberated, new matter is constantly being created. Saguna Brahma goes on to infinity. Thought projection of the Cosmic Mind can never be stopped. This means that the universe is indestructible and eternal.

If carefully studied Brahmacakra cycle, we can see that many scientific disputes , religious and political controversies are  enlightened by this vision of the universe. For example Judeo Christian religion says that “man was made in the image and likeness of God” but, what does this mean? Is God a man in the sky with a big beard? This would not be acceptable from the point of view of logic, what we can say is that the human mind, having all of three functional parts (citta, aham and mahat) is a replica or reflection of the Cosmic Mind. Brahmacakra also clarifies things that scientists are trying to answer: Did the universe began with a Big Bang? Does the material is constantly created? Does the universe have shape? Studying it from the view of Brahmacakra we can see matter is constantly created . In some of his writings, Shrii Shrii Anandamurti said that this universe, although very vast, is not infinite and it does have a certain way, which conform to the physical base to show the curvature of space.

Finally more and more physicists have encountered difficulties in trying to prove the basis of all things and have reached the same conclusion as the ancient philosophers. Previously it was thought that the atom was the smallest particle, but then divided it into smaller particles and more subatomic particles are continuously being discovered. That is why some thinkers have concluded that the base of matter and energy is consciousness itself. Sir James Jean said “It is better to describe reality as mental rather than as material.”

Brahmacakra also bring light to social theories. Many theories argue that the mind is creation of matter and that matter is the most important element in all aspects of life element. The theory of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti agrees that mind comes out of matter but believes that this is possible because the subject has emerged from the Cosmic Mind and mind is thus inherent in matter. The last Awareness is the most important aspect of the universe. Brahmacakra also gives another perspective to another important philosophical question: Is the universe an illusion? or What should be our approach to this material world? Some philosophers say that this world is an illusion, the lack of material development in India is largely due to the influence of this kind of philosophy. Shrii Shrii Anandamurti said that this manifested universe is a “relative reality” because it is constantly changing. Nirguna Brahma on the other hand is an absolute unchangeable reality. However, we are part of this relative reality and we cannot deny its existence without denying our own. That is why Shrii Shrii Anandamurti said we should make an “objective adjustment” with the material world, fulfilling our social obligations, but at the same time we must make the Supreme Consciousness is our goal in this life and thus move towards unification with this Blissful Consciousness.